Tanzania ranks is third in Africa on livestock production and in terms of cattle population after Ethiopia (31 million) and Sudan (30 million). According to 2007/2008 livestock census, the dominant species are cattle (21,280,875) followed by goats (15,154,121), sheep (5,715,549) and pigs (1,584,411). The total number of livestock units is 25,977,665. About 90% of the livestock population is of the indigenous type. The livestock sector provides livelihood support to approximate 1,745,776 (37%) households, out of a total of 4,901,837 agricultural household (URT, Livestock survey census 2005.). The livestock sector grows at a rate of 2.7% per annum. The livestock industry contributes 30% of agricultural GDP (2010). The livestock sector contributes about 4.7% of the GDP (947 billion TZS)- which was equivalent to 789 million USD (2009 data). 24 million ha are used for cattle grazing (2007/2008 livestock census) mostly in Shinyanga, Arusha, Manyara, Tabora and Mwanza. The highest goat population is in Shinyanga, Arusha, Manyara and Tabora. Pigs are more common in the southern regions of Mbeya and Iringa, as well as in Kilimanjaro and Dar es Salaam regions.
Common sources of meat are beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs and poultry. Cattle contributes 53% of the total meat production, whereas sheep and goats contributes 22%. Beef production in Tanzania mainly comes from traditional sector that is dominated by Tanzania Short Horned Zebu (TSHZ), agro-pastoral system contributes 80% and pastoral system contributes 14%. Only 6% of meat production comes from commercial ranches. In 2009 the annual meat production was 449,673 tons and per capital meat consumption was 12kg. Hence we lag behind the recommended consumption standard of FAO that is 50kg per annum. Current per capita meat consumption stands around 24kg per annum.
The country produces 462,686 tonnes of meat annually for domestic consumption but also imports 800 tonnes high quality meat to meet demand for tourist hotels and mines. There is also a substantial export of meat and live animals. Statistics show that the country earned TZS 3.81bln/- from the export of 3,362 cattle and 4,060 goats and sheep. (2011/2012).
Challenges facing Production and Productivity in Beef SubSector
About 600,000 of total cattle population in Tanzania are dairy cattle. Milk production from cows during the wet season was 1.6 billion litres and 0.9 billion litres during the dry season. About 60% of milk produced by indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, and 40% kept by improved cattle mainly by smallholder producers, milk yield from indigenous to improved dairy cows ranges from 1-2 litres and 7-10 litres per cow per day respectively, at present 10% of milk produced annually enter the market, and the remaining is consumed at home or considered to a waste commercially mainly due to lack of collection system.
At present there are about 48 small and medium milk processing plants with installed capacity of 394,600 litres per day. The majority of these plants operates at very low capacity. The average of these processing plants currently process about 105,380 litres/day, which is equivalent to 27% of installed capacity. The current processing capacity accounts for 5% of the annual milk production as many consumers buy unprocessed milk from dairy farmers in their neighbourhood.
Challenges facing Production and Productivity in the Dairy Sub-Sector
2. Potential for Investment in Beef and Dairy Industry.
Carrying capacity of the rangeland in Tanzania is estimated at 20 million animal units but currently there are only 16 million animal units. There is ample potential for expansion of the livestock industry through better animal husbandry, improve breeding and addition of livestock.
The import of 800tonnes of high quality meat for tourist hotels and mines cost Tanzania 10billion annually. This demand could potentially be met by high quality local production. This situation could also be used as a window of opportunity to improve the standard of beef production and meat grading in slaughterhouse operations.
The increasing demand of meat of the eastern and southern African countries are potential market once better animal husbandry practices are adopted and improved processing facilities established and operational.
Potential for Increase in Output/Production and Productivity of Meat Animals
Potential for Increase in Output/Production and Productivity of Dairy Animals
3. Financing Needs for the livestock sector
Financial support in this industry is of great importance due to its capital intensity.
Financial needs for the livestock sector falls under:
Livestock Entrepreneurs / Farmer Groups may seek financial assistance for:
4. How can PASS help Farmers in the Beef and Dairy Industry? (in the livestock sector by intensification of animal production and improved beef and milk processing).